Django Structure

Django follows a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern, but in Django terminology, it’s often referred to as Model-View-Template (MVT). Here’s an overview of the typical structure of a Django project:

  1. Project:
    • A Django project is a collection of settings and configurations for a specific web application. It can contain one or more Django apps.
    • Common project-level files and directories:
      • A command-line utility for interacting with the project.
      • Configuration settings for the project.
      • URL patterns for the entire project.
  2. Apps:
    • A Django app is a modular component that encapsulates a specific functionality of the project. Projects are often composed of multiple apps.
    • Common app-level files and directories:
      • Defines the data models for the app.
      • Contains the logic for processing HTTP requests and returning responses.
      • Defines URL patterns specific to the app.
      • templates/: Directory for storing HTML templates.
      • static/: Directory for storing static files (CSS, JavaScript, images).
  3. Database Models:
    • The file within each app defines the database models using Django’s Object-Relational Mapping (ORM). Models describe the structure of the database tables and relationships.
    • The file within each app contains functions or classes that handle HTTP requests, process data, and return HTTP responses. Views interact with models to fetch or update data.
  5. Templates:
    • The templates/ directory within each app stores HTML templates. Templates are used to generate dynamic HTML content that is sent to the client.
  6. Static Files:
    • The static/ directory within each app is used for storing static files such as CSS, JavaScript, and images. These files are served directly by the web server.
  7. URL Configuration:
    • The files in both the project and app define URL patterns. The project’s typically includes the URL patterns of various apps.
  8. Settings:
    • The file in the project contains configuration settings for the entire project, such as database configuration, timezone settings, middleware, and more.
  9. Middleware:
    • Middleware components in Django are used to process requests and responses globally before they reach the views or after they leave the views.
  10. Admin Interface:
    • Django provides a built-in admin interface that can be customized to manage data models through a web-based interface. Admin functionality is defined in the files within each app.
|-- project_name/
| |--
| |--
| |--
| |--
| `--
|-- app1/
| |--
| |--
| |--
| |-- migrations/
| |--
| |--
| |--
| `-- templates/
|-- app2/
| |-- ...
|-- static/
|-- templates/
|-- venv/ (virtual environment)

This is a basic overview, and the structure can vary based on project requirements and personal preferences. Django’s convention over configuration approach provides a default structure, but it allows for flexibility and customization.